An Update (Part 2)

Welcome back peeps! Here’s the second part of the overview/highlights of what we’ve been getting up to so far on the course:

Module 2: Diversity & Evolution of Insects

This module was a nice transition from the previous module content-wise. The first day was a mixed bag, it started with a lecture from Prof. Simon Leather (@EntoProf) on the history of entomology as a subject and insect paleontology (come on, who doesn’t love a bit of Meganeura spp.). Followed by Dr. Andy Cherrill giving a lecture on intraspecific variation. Theeeeen, back to Simon, with a lecture on the super weird, awe-inducing and ever so slightly ridiculous aphid life cycle. The day concluded with the first guest speaker for this module: Professor Tony Dixon! He gave us a lecture on aphid thermobiology and coccinellids (ladybirds, namely on generation time and their usage in biocontrol). He was Simon’s PhD supervisor! It was a privilege to be lectured by someone who has been in the game for so long, is still publishing research and has taught one of our lecturers. The next day was also a healthy mix of topics, covering soil biodiversity to aquatic insects and estimating insect species diversity.

Leading on from the previous day, we had a lecture on Acari (ticks and mites). The study of non-insect arthropods meshes nicely with entomology. As entomologists, it is important for us to be able to identify relatives and to understand their ecological interactions. The rest of the day was full of the mighty Odonata! Starting with a series of lectures from guest speaker Steve Brooks (once again, from NHM) on the identification of British Anisoptera (dragonflies) and Zygoptera (damselfies). The afternoon was spent gleefully identifying odonatans using their larval exuviae with The British Dragonfly Society’s Shropshire County Recorder, Sue Rees Evans!

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The larval exuviae of the Southern Hawker (Aeshna cyanea). Dragonfly larvae are predatory and possess a labial “mask”, a modified labium tipped with pincers. The mask is fired out to grab and immobilise prey. 

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The larval exuviae of a damselfly. The appendages on the rear are called lamellae and they aid gas exchange.

With Odonata checked off the list, we had a day dedicated to an assortment of insect orders with Dr. Mike Copeland. To name a few, we covered the Phasmida, Dermaptera and Neuroptera. The following day started off with a practical session in which we unleashed the fury of lacewing larvae onto some chubby mealybugs; a little taster of what is to come in the Commercial & Practical Biological Control module!

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A lacewing larvae chowing down on a mealy bug. They are voracious predators with specialised mandibles used to extract the bodily fluids of their prey.

The module and week ended on a mellow note, with another chill session of pinning and curation. Practice makes perfect!

Module 3: Experimental Design & Analysis

Being able to design an experiment to test a hypothesis and then analysing the acquired data using the appropriate statistical analyses, holds fundamental importance in science. Once again, the course is full of people with varying levels of experience in different areas, and statistics is no exception. The module reinforced the importance of a robust experimental design, and introduced the cohort to the statistical software R and how to run a range of tests using it. Of course, I would rather have fun practicals over this in a heartbeat, but you can’t replace bread and butter with more filling and expect to have a sandwich! Having just finished this module, we start the Commercial & Practical Biological Control module on Monday! *crowd cheers* HUZZA!!

Soooooo…that’s it from me for now! Linzi will be posting an article on Tuesday on insects which survive in extreme environments and their adaptations to the hostile conditions they live in.

Until next time!

 

By Aqib Ali  (Twitter:@EntoAqib , Email: Aqib1996@hotmail.co.uk , Linkedin: Aqib Ali)

MSc Entomology Twitter: @EntoMasters

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An Update (Part 1)

It has been a hot minute since we posted the last article which introduced us, so a little update about what us budding entomologists have been getting up to on the course so far and my thoughts on it seemed rather apt. I present to you part one of the overview/highlights of what we’ve done so far:

Module 1: Biology & Taxonomy of Insects

Following the introductory Research & Information Skills module, this was the first entomology module with two weeks of entomological goodness for the cohort to get stuck into, and boy, we weren’t left disappointed. The module started with a session on Orthoptera and a general run through of insect anatomy led by Dr. Andy Cherrill. This was followed by practical session which involved a delightful dissection of the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria).

 

The next day we covered the order Thysanoptera (thrips) with Dr Tom Pope (@ipm_tom), followed by a zoom through the superorder Dictyoptera (comprising of the orders Mantodea (mantids) and Blattodea (cockroaches and termites)) with Dr. Rob Graham. With everyone on the course being from varied backgrounds and holding different levels of experience within different things, the session on insect pinning and curation was extremely useful for everyone. The cohort spent the afternoon pinning, micropinning and carding insects in a thrilling practical session led by PhD student Francisca Sconce (@FranciscaSconce).

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Pinned 3rd instar desert locust nymph and carabid (specimens pinned and photographed by Linzi (@Apis_linzi)).

After a whizz through a lecture on sampling methods by Prof. Simon Leather (@EntoProf) we covered a range of methods, ranging from beating to sweep netting and from pitfall traps to malaise traps. The afternoon was spent in the great outdoors sweep netting and getting to use the Vortistm, a vacuum used to suck up and sample insects (and relatives).

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Fellow entomologist Brinna (@BrinnaBarlow) trying her hand at sampling some insects using the Vortis suction sampler.

The first week of this module ended with a bang, with the first guest speaker from the Natural History Museum: hymenopterist Dr. Andy Polaszek (@AndyPolaszek)! In a blitz through the hyper diverse Hymenoptera, we covered several groups, focusing on their identification as well as some tidbits on their biology. We put what we learnt during the morning lecture to test in an intense identification practical.

 

 

 

Week two of the module started with an aphid-packed day on Hemiptera. The next day was Lepidoptera-filled. We had a practical session which involved taking morphometric measurments in waxmoths (Galleria mellonella) and dissecting out the females ovarioles to count the number of eggs.

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A female wax moth (Galleria mellonella) dissected with ovarioles spread out, as part of the Lepidoptera class practical.

Speaker number two from NHM was THE fly girl herself, Dr. Erica McAllister (@flygirlNHM)! She vividly captured our interest and introduced us to the weird and wonderful world of flies. Leading on nicely from the zoom through Diptera, we had a session on Forensic Entomology, full of murder (not literally of course…that’d be bad) and maggots with one of the UK’s leading forensic entomologist’s Dr. Amoret Whitaker. The module ended with shimmer and shine a.k.a beetles, with coleopterist Dr. Max Barclay (@Coleopterist)!

 

This module was certainly a personal favourite of mine (so far), we covered SOOO MUCH in a relatively short space of time. With informative lectures from the university lecturers, plenty of hands on practicals, combined with several external speakers who are experts within their respective fields; I feel as though we thoroughly covered the major insect orders in a very engaging manner! A truly fantastic start to the course!

Make sure to check out the next post “An Update (Part 2)” on Saturday!

 

By Aqib Ali  (Twitter:@EntoAqib , Email: Aqib1996@hotmail.co.uk , Linkedin: Aqib Ali)

MSc Entomology Twitter: @EntoMasters

The larvae emerge…

It’s that time of year again when a new cohort of enthusiastic entomologists begin their journeys at Harper Adams, which of course means new authorship of Mastering Entomology. So, this short post is going to introduce us as the new authors and let you know what you can expect from us across the next year.

We’ve written short pieces introducing ourselves:

Hi guys! My name is Aqib Ali and I am one of two curators of this blog, for this academic year. I’ve had an interest in “creepy crawlies” from a very young age. It began with a childish, albeit slightly morbid, curiosity (yes, I was one of those pulling-off-legs and offering-sacrificial-larvae-to-spider-overlords kind of kids). Although, this interest faded slightly as I moved through the mundane secondary school system, my love for life sciences remained constant and it led to me doing a BSc (Hons) Zoology degree at the University of Derby. As I passed through my undergraduate course, my passion for all things insect was slowly reignited. I did several modules with entomological content, one of which was “Applied Entomology”, taught by the likes of Professor Karim Vahed- a leading expert in the field of sexual selection and insects. With my interests piqued, I decided to do a dissertation on an aspect of sexual selection, namely intrasexual selection (male competition). I looked at whether weapon size affects the outcome of aggressive encounters in a cricket species (Platygryllus primiformis). I also sought out volunteering, such as a research assistant for forensic entomologist Dr. Kate Barnes, to broaden my entomological interests. By the end of my undergraduate degree my heart and head were both set on carrying on down the entomological path. Deciding what my next step would be was a no brainer: the MSc Entomology course at Harper Adams University. What attracted me to this course was its range of modules which cover a variety of topics, the excellent teaching quality and facilities, and that it’s quite literally one of a kind.

My entomological interests at this stage are broad and I am open to the many aspects of this diverse subject. Entering this course open-minded will allow me to fully experience and consider my options before I find my specialism. This journey has started with a bang with the Biology and Taxonomy module! In the short time, I’ve been here I’ve learnt so much! I hope to carry on learning new things, acquiring invaluable skills, amassing great experiences and most importantly, loving what I do.”- Aqib Ali

 

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The new cohort, learning some practical skills in Biology and Taxonomy of Insects (Photo by Aqib)

 

Hi I’m Linzi and I’m a graduate from Keele University studying Applied Environmental Science with Physical Geography. My interest in entomology began when we used aquatic insects as indicator species during a field trip to Cwm Idwal. This developed further throughout more field trips around Staffordshire and into France. When it came to my final year I selected modules that would allow me to focus my interests more and decided to base my dissertation on insects.

After hours of scouring news articles and journal articles I decided to investigate pesticide contamination in honey, particularly neonicotinoids. Although by the end of my experimental work I ended up looking for 91 different pesticides across five honey samples. I loved my dissertation and really wanted to take it further, this is what really set my mind on entomology. Hours and hours of reading articles about honey bees, and other beneficial pollinators had me captivated and after a short google search, my heart was set on Harper.

I have been lucky to be given the opportunity to study at Harper, and since arriving only three weeks ago I’ve already learnt so much and my interests have greatly broadened! I’m excited to keep broadening my interests and eventually find the area that I will  have a career in.Linzi Jay Thompson

So…that’s us! We will be publishing a variety of articles covering; our course, our interests and more. We aim to publish as regularly as possible (schedule permitting) so check back to see which exciting article we have posted. You can expect up to three articles per month covering a variety of topics, meanwhile, please follow us on twitter @EntoMasters for the latest updates, and follow our personal twitter accounts too @EntoAqib and @Apis_Linzi.

Friday brings many good things. Nevermind the weekend, we love hymenopterans.

Greetings readership.

Friday brings us many things. Many good things (besides the end of the week).

Today, the students taking the Biology and Taxonomy of Insects module on the Applied Ecology suite of MSc courses here at Harper Adams University were treated to a day consisting entirely of Hymenoptera-related (wasps, bees and ants) lessons, from Dr Andrew Polaszek, of the Natural History Museum (NHM) in London. Starting the day off with an overview of the Order, Dr. Polaszek went on to characterise the super-families using morphological and ecological definitions. The class later went on to try our hand at the initially daunting task of  identifying specimens to super-family, family or genus level based on various keys. The fact that the majority of students were able to identify the specimens shows the quality of the keys and the direction Dr. Polaszek gave to us. By the end of the afternoon, most students had been identifying specimens for 2h30m, with the majority actively enjoying the process, and improving over the course of the day. Continue reading

Another day, another essay.

Greetings readership.

With another day, comes another Antenna scholarship essay for you to read. This one is from a highly knowledgeable colleague, Jack Cox, who completed his BSc in Zoology at the University of Derby. Specialising in orthopterans,  Jack has a particular interest in their taxonomy and behavioural ecology, aspiring to eventually conduct scientific research and have his work published. Keen on the idea of a PhD, he’d also be happy to work in industry or to eventually become a lecturer (if any readers would like to offer an opportunity to Jack *hint hint* you can contact him on jackryancox@msn.com).

Continue reading

Taxonomy bytes back: are insect avatars the solution to tackle the classification bottleneck?

We have been naming and describing the natural world around us for millennia, but how does this age-old science relate to the 21st century? Computers have revolutionised the modern world and smart phones have lead to global connectivity. Ideas shared, data accessed and unity of knowledge achieved at the tap of the finger. With growing interest in biodiversity and conservation many technological advances are assisting within these fields. Despite racing against the deteriorating environment, new species are being discovered at a record rate. It seems therefore, that it has never been more important to put the right name to the right species and to do so quickly.

We are currently facing a classification bottleneck. This is an issue of time, money and accessibility, constraining upon sheer number of new specimens being collected. That is not to mention the number of synonyms and misidentified species that need some serious TLC. As ever, time is money and experts are scarce, so this really is a problem of exponential proportion.

 

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Author with her own collection submitted for our Entomology MSc Diversity and Evolution of Insects module

The latest revolution sits in the hands of digitalisation, of avatars and of so called 3D cybertypes. The new age of taxonomy is well and truly upon us. Focal stacking software amalgamates a series of two dimensional images to create an otherwise impossible focal range, whilst visual-hull algorithms carve into three dimensional space, stitching these stacks into tangibility. A 3D replica, an avatar, is thrust into digital existence, with full natural colour and incredible intricacy. High resolution microtomography (microCT) can then be used as a non-invasive means to map internal morphology. The result: a high resolution colour, interactive 3D interface, with the ability to explore within, differentiating between systems.

These advancements have caused some stir. With rapid characterisation of species morphology and subsequent preservation in the digital domain there is scope for broad spectrum application within entomology and beyond. These visual aids can be complemented with quick access to distribution data, DNA barcodes, research on behaviour or whatever published data required. Just as existing tools can be accessed remotely by the global community, these avatars too are accessed online and utilised in a similar way. Data banks can be pooled and comprehensive catalogues of data created, eternalised online, accessible 24/7, all at the click of a button. Recent advancements in producing data miners to sift through academic journals online have already be noted for their potential in the field of medicine. One such data miner, launched by the Seattle-based institute AI2, is already in use. Currently capable of trawling computer science literature, developers aim to scale up the programme, with extension to medical, biological and other scientific disciplines.   Imagine the applications; to request a specimen from the collections and for it arrive instantaneously, perpetuated in digital perfection, to your desktop. It would contain with it a plethora of data, pooling prior research, amalgamating it to one dashboard. This is not to say that a digitalised avatar would replace the crucial type specimen. These new digital techniques are a means to acquire more data, to be more exhaustive and to enable greater ease of access, leading to higher efficiency within our field.

Our natural history collections represent centuries of passion, of exploration and of pioneers within their fields. More than just prestige, collections carry with them invaluable data, added to by centuries of continuing research. Taxonomy is not an archaic tradition, refined to dusty old cabinets behind the closed doors of museums. Taxonomy is as current today as it has ever been. It is time for taxonomy to once again hold its own, to invoke collaboration and inter-disciplinary interaction. Ultimately, we are working for the same cause. Let’s move into the digital age and grant accessibility to all. If knowledge is power and communication is key its time we join forces to liberate our knowledge in this time of rapid environmental change.

By Alice Mockford

 

References

Akkari, N., Enghoff, H. and Metscher, B.D. (2015). A New Dimension in Documenting New Species: High-Detail Imaging for Myriapod Taxonomy and First 3D Cybertype of a New Millipede Species (Diplopoda, Julida, Julidae). Plos One [Online] 10:e0135243. Available at: http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135243.

Erwin, T., Stoev, P., Georgiev, T. and Penev, L. (2015). ZooKeys 500 : traditions and innovations hand-in-hand servicing our taxonomic community. 8:1–8.

Godfray, H.C.J. (2002). Challenges for taxonomy. Nature 417:17–19.

Marshall S.A., Evenhuis N.L.   (2015) New species without dead bodies: a case for photo-based descriptions, illustrated by a striking new species of Marleyimyia Hesse (Diptera, Bombyliidae) from South Africa. ZooKeys 525: 117-127 (05 Oct 2015) doi: 10.3897/zookeys.525.6143

Nguyen, C., Lovell, D., Adcock, M. and La Salle, J. (2014). Capturing natural-colour 3D models of insects for species discovery and diagnostics. PLoS ONE 9:1–11.

Nguyen, C., Lovell, D., Oberprieler, R., Jennings, D., Adcock, M., Gates-Stuart, E. and La Salle, J. (2013). Virtual 3D models of insects for accelerated quarantine control. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision:161–167.

Qian, J., Lei, M., Dan, D., Yao, B., Zhou, X., Yang, Y., Yan, S., et al. (2015). Full-color structured illumination optical sectioning microscopy. Scientific Reports [Online] 5:14513. Available at: http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/srep14513.

La Salle, J., Wheeler, Q., Jackway, P., Winterton, S., Hobern, D. and Lovell, D. (2009). Accelerating taxonomic discovery through automated character extraction. Zootaxa 55:43–55.

Winterton, S.L., Guek, H.P. and Brooks, S.J. (2012). A charismatic new species of green lacewing discovered in Malaysia (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae): The confluence of citizen scientist, online image database and cybertaxonomy. ZooKeys 214:1–11.