Trips, thrips, and spills

Okay so not so many spills (even after some wine at the RES yesterday), and no thrips… basically this is a post about the fabulous trips we’ve been on recently and I wanted an insect pun in the title.

Back in February we were treated to a day at the Natural History Museum in London, and had a fabulous day of ‘behind the scenes’ tours led by Erica McAlister. We learned so much about the collections and the value of having museum specimens, we heard about the science and research happening and even saw specimens collected by Darwin and Wallace!

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The EntoMasters and IMP cohort plus some lovely undergrads- photo credit Heather Campbell

We then had some very busy lecture weeks with lots of group work to keep us out of trouble, but more importantly on Monday 9th March we were bundled back on an early morning coach to head to the headquarters of the Royal Entomological Society for some talks, staring at lovely old books, and a walk in their gardens. We spent much of the time trying to photograph the weevils in the garden and helped a B. terrestris on her way.

Perhaps I should include some lecture work (and somehow link it to thrips as the title says…). Since Christmas we’ve had Pesticide Technology, Biodiversity and Ecosystem services (this is how our farm trip ended), and Ecological Entomology, which rounds up the modules for the year and leaves us with assignments to write, exams to prepare for, and MRPs to plan. Exciting! We also handed in assignments for Insect Physiology and Behaviour, and Commercial and Practical Biological Control (where we learned about Thrips!! See, knew I’d find a way to mention it and validate the title!).

I have a few more posts lined up about exciting MRPs and the results of the RES Student Essay competition (we’ll have to wait until Antenna is published to read them though!) but importantly, I’ll be spending the next 2 weeks with my head in my revision notes prepping for the exams.

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The EntoMasters cohort, lecturers, and one sneaky undergrad! (Simon tweeted this photo but I don’t remember who took it!)

Elin

Season’s greetings!

Hello all! With Christmas, New Year, Hanukkah, and the Royal Ent Soc student essay deadline all over for another year, we would like to wish everyone a happy and prosperous 2020, especially for our 6-legged friends. We have been hard at work writing up assignments and experiments, ready to head back to lectures. We finished our year with a course Christmas party which was the perfect way to unwind after our modules!

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Exciting news! One of our cohort (Amy) ventured to Crewe in December to deliver a talk on pollinators. Below is a beautiful account of her talk: “The Terrifying Freedom of First Time Public Speaking”.

Picture this, you get an e-mail from a friend that studies abroad, someone has got in contact with her to do a talk about pollinators and insects at an open climate change panel. Can you take my place? She says. The first thought here is always “OH GOD NO I CAN’T SPEAK….IN FRONT….OF PEOPLE…..can I? NOPE I can’t”. You frantically message your closest friends:

“IVE JUST BEEN ASKED TO DO A POLLINATOR TALK IN FRONT OF 9 MILLION PEOPLE DO YOU THINK I SHOULD I GO FOR IT? WHAT IF I CAN’T? CAN I? WHAT DO YOU THINK?”

In which the reply is subsequently something along the lines of:

“OF COURSE YOU SHOULD! Firstly, you’re so dramatic, it definitely is not 9 million people you’ll be talking to and secondly, you know your stuff! You love insects!” quickly followed by a lot of “You go girl, you should do this, it’ll be great for you!”

I was in this situation a couple of weeks back, and I decided to accept. There was almost definitely the tossing and turning the night before, the hot sweaty palms on the train to the venue…and the constant reading of my power point making sure I’ve got the right stuff in my head. I was on my way to Crewe to talk on a panel of amazing women from all aspects of life, from the leader of the green party in that area, to an extinction rebellion activist…there was a lot of pressure to do well, not in everyone else’s eyes but in my own. The lead up to the talk was very humbling, I got to talk to all the women I’d be standing alongside, and they put my mind at ease!

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The venue and audience!

“Are you nervous?” – YES IM NERVOUS OH GOD, IM SO NERVOUS – “I’m a little nervous, this is my first talk in front of this many people” – “OH, don’t worry! In science and climate, you have to talk to people, gotta get that ball rolling, this is the right place for you”

The venue was a relaxed yoga centre (No shoes allowed, and I highly recommend where you can to practice without shoes, there’s a lot of freedom and grounding to it! A top tip in my eyes), I was not entirely sure of the amount of people that would be there, but all in total it was between 35-40 people. That was the most I’d ever seen in one place to listen to ME ramble on about insects.

I was fourth in the line up of speakers, and the women before me were phenomenal, all things climate crisis, economic crisis and ways forward, a whole pile of ideas and passion. It was finally my turn. I moved to the front of the room, my power point on display. The worst part is the quiet, and you can start to hear you heart in your ears and suddenly your mind goes blank. If you’re anything like me you’ll want to run at this point, or fake feeling ill. Don’t, take your time to recalibrate, have a good look at your first slide, and take a deep breath. I opened my talk with a bit of background about myself, and a joke. It went something like this:

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“Hello everyone, sorry, I am a bit nervous so I might be a bit shaky, but here goes. A little about myself, I did my undergrad at Salford University doing wildlife and practical conservation. At the end of my degree I decided to go on a birding holiday to Norfolk with friends, but suddenly realised I spent more time peering in to the undergrowth and looking for hidden insects than I was for birds, which lead me to this MSc, and now I look at bugs all day every day!” laughs really help to ease you, I really recommend starting it light hearted, run with it. I spoke about all the pollinators I could, highlighted the importance of looking out for insects in your garden and recording what you find. I spoke about projects I had been involved in that brings communities together to help increase pollinator numbers. Soon, I had been speaking for fifteen minutes. And I got an applaud at the end.

HURRAH. I did it! Was it so terrible? No, it was not. Was it terrifying? To begin with, slightly scary, but that eased. Could I do it again? Almost definitely.

My first public speaking event was a great one, I networked with some amazing women. I took questions and exchanged e-mails with people wanting help in their community. It was a great experience, and very freeing. Anyone that is thinking they can’t speak to the public is wrong, you most definitely can do it and it is a very rewarding experience! Being in science is all about speaking, its all about talking about the problems and the solutions. It’s talking about theories and data, its being excited about research.

So, if you ever get that “dreaded” e-mail, message, phone-call. Remember, they’ve contacted YOU for a reason, someone believes you can get the job done, and my advice would be to take it because every time you do it, it gets easier and it will get a little more exciting and a lot less scary.

Amy, you are definitely braver than me, but now you have good practice for upcoming group presentations!

Now, back to putting the finishing touches on our insect boxes ready to hand in on Thursday, and as always keep up to date with us on Twitter.

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Guthrie’s outstanding insect box for our Diversity and Evolution assignment

Elin

Hard at work!

Hello all! We are now seven (SEVEN!!) weeks into the course, and hard at work with assignments and extra reading for past and upcoming lectures. We have had a week off after Diversity and Evolution of Insects, and are just about to head into Experimental Design and Analysis. Kick-sampling in the rivers at Harper brought some hilarity to the week, as the rest of the week was devoid of fimo clay insects!

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‘Italians will eat anything’ from Lucy Crockford

Luckily we found time on Halloween for an anatomically correct, Entomology themed Halloween party!

I asked Louis (again petition pending to get Louis on Twitter) for a short write-up on BENHS, so thanks to him for this lovely piece:
Last weekend eight of us went to the British Entomological and Natural History Society (BENHS for short) annual student meeting. The day was packed with entomology-based talks and networking opportunities. Upon arrival, the staff – Jon Cole and Ian Sims – opened up the previous night’s moth trap catch for us to have a look at; then we began the talks! The subjects covered throughout the talks ranged from bumblebee genetics to photography of insects and other creatures in the Peruvian Amazon. During each coffee break and over lunch time we had the chance to talk to the speakers and learn more about their work and glean advice as well as discuss future collaborative opportunities. Despite the overarching entomological theme, there was another, more subtle theme that I noticed throughout the talks: I learned that routes into a career in entomology needn’t follow a specific, typical path as I had previously believed to be the case; each speaker at the meeting presented a different route by which they found their way into entomology. This message, whether intentional or not, was refreshing amongst us, the students. We also learned about the plethora of useful and interesting resources such as the collection, books and journal subscriptions available to us, should we choose to join BENHS. I therefore highly recommend checking out the BENHS and all they have to offer!

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The dedicated students who headed down to BENHS, L-R Charlie, Rachel, Amy, Jen, Graham, Mark, and Louis in front.

As always, find updates on our Twitter, though there may just be photos of tears and computers as we grapple with R this week!

Elin

Welcome to the 2019/2020 blog!

Hello all! Welcome to the 2019/2020 MSc Entomology blog posts. We have settled into life in Harper Adams, and are half way through our second module (Biology and Taxonomy of Insects). Over the next few months we’ll introduce new students in various blog posts about our areas of interest or particularly notable adventures. We also have some exciting trips planned where we hope to share our love of insects! For now, a recap of the last few weeks.

We started life at Harper with a day of inductions and introductions; we met everyone on the course and learned where everything is and how it all works. After this, we had three days of Research and Information Skills, learning about the peer review process and how to critically review papers, as well as an exciting introduction to the statistical analysis software R (no sarcasm there I promise!). Friday was graduation of last year’s cohort as well as undergrads, and was a lovely sunny day of celebrations and certainly something to look forward to a year from now. From here we were set off to write our first assignment, and made good use of the week break to get started on this and explore the local area.

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The 2019 Postgraduate cohort. Most of us are the second row in, or third from the back!

Biology and Taxonomy of Insects has been a fantastic module to get our teeth (or mouthparts) into; from keying out Fimo clay larvae to dissecting out froghopper genitalia (to identify the species of course) we’ve had a wonderful week. Our week consisted of morning lectures for a general introduction to the Orders (Orthoptera, Hemiptera, and Hymenoptera), then an afternoon laboratory session to dissect and identify species within the order. We also had sessions on sampling methods and larval stage identification (and its difficulties). Our visit on Wednesday from Andrew Polaszek and his incredible knowledge of Hymenoptera certainly inspired us!

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Fimo larvae!

 

A small introduction to this years Royal Entomological Society scholars, as well as a huge thank you to the RES for their continued sponsorship, is in order. A full blog post will be written after the submission of their essays, but for now I asked for a brief factsheet from each person, here goes my attempt at formatting on WordPress for the first time!

Name: Jennifer Jones (@jendiberjones)
Undergrad degree: Ecology (Aberystwyth University)
Favourite insect: A tricky one. I think it could be the hairy footed flower bee as the males have a little white moustache and hairy arms too!
Hobbies: Reading, bio recording, some wildlife photography and knitting.
Future plans: Hopefully researching insects and the services pollinators supply and how to help them, or possibly independent ecological survey specialising in insects and museum curation.

Name: Charlie Rose (@CharlieMyrmRose)
Undergrad degree: Zoology (University of Derby)
Favourite insect: Ants (particularly Cephalotes specularis)
Hobbies: Reading, hiking, and board games with friends.
Future plans: Research, preferably working on ant ecology or biology.

Name: Louis Nicholls (Petition to get Louis on Twitter coming soon)
Undergrad degree: Biology (Manchester Metropolitan University)
Favourite insect: Praying mantises (order Mantodea) and of them, at the moment, the Tarachodid bark mantises. Mantids are beautiful, charismatic and diverse yet, unfortunately, they’re extremely poorly studied – I find this baffling considering the long-standing historical and cultural presence of the group worldwide.
Hobbies: Along with photography, I love martial arts and, most of all, catching and studying bugs (and I don’t just mean Hemiptera!)
Future plans: To add to the knowledge on Mantodea, with a focus on their ecology and an aim to explore whether they hold potential as tropical bioindicators.

Name: Graham Smith (@Ento_Bento)
Undergrad degree: Biology (University of Nottingham)
Favourite insect: Bloody-nosed beetle
Hobbies: Rambling, running, anime, drawing.
Future plans: Building confidence to potentially lecture in future, to share my enthusiasm with others.

Now, back to assignment writing and reading up on the orders we studied last week!

Elin (@elin_cunningham)

Meet the new ento-blogging team

New year, new team of aspirant entomologists writing for Mastering Entomology – and this time around there’s four of us. With no further ado, let’s introduce the team…

Ant lion

Here’s an antlion Sam found earlier

The antlion fanatic

Hey, I’m Sam. I’m actually a fairly recent convert to the ento crowd. My undergrad was in zoology, where I was considering going into conservation or behavioural research. As the leader of the course was an entomologist I did learn a lot about insects, but my passion wasn’t really ignited until a trip to Africa in my final year. In a place where monkeys and hippos are the norm, I found greater fascination in the intricate pitfall traps formed by the antlions that surrounded our hostel. That trip cemented in me a desire to understand the behaviour of insects and its evolution. Which is exactly why I’m here at Harper Adams. I’ll try my best to share all the interesting behaviours that I come across in my studies.

The future curator

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…and a death’s head hawkmoth Dom photographed earlier

Hi, I’m Dominic. I chose to study Entomology as I am very passionate about the subject and want to improve my knowledge and understanding of Insects. Ultimately, I wish to work as an Entomological curator where I can look after the important collections held within museums, educate the public on insects and hopefully conduct my own research to help the conservation of entomofauna and the habitats they reside in. My main interests in Entomology are Lepidoptera and Coleoptera (predominantly Moths and Scarabaeidae). I am fascinated with the way that Insects interact with and influence other organisms as well as looking at their roles in various ecosystems, I am also intrigued with how Insects have impacted human culture. In this blog I hope to write about insect behaviour, interactions, historical importance, environmental impacts and any other Entomology facts I find interesting.

 

Entomologists on wrekin

Gary (L) on a collecting mission with fellow members of the Harper ento crowd

The outlier

I’m Gary. You could certainly argue that I’m not the typical Entomology MSc student, having spent the last decade-plus in writing, communications and journalism. The love of insects has always been there, mind – just, it’s fair to say, lying somewhat dormant for a spell. Heavily influencing my taking of this somewhat tangential turn was time spent in the Prespa National Park in Greece, Albania and the Republic of Macedonia, where, similarly to Sam, I spent much of my time staring in awe at the biodiversity on the floor rather than looking out for bears, wolves or the magnificent array of bird species. Though I’m not exactly relishing the statistics that are to come as we work towards our final research projects, an insect-collecting trip up the Wrekin last week with some of my fellow Ento postgrads firmly fixed in my mind that I’ve made the right, albeit slightly curious, decision. Twitter: @garyfromleeds

Niahs aphid

Niah’s pet aphid mama

The pest patroller

Hi, I’m Niah, the token Integrated Pest Management student on this blog. I come from a science background, having just completed my Bachelor’s in Biological Science, but I knew next to nothing about entomology until my interest was sparked on a placement at the Warwick Crop Centre. Having spent a summer emptying traps, carrying out pesticide trials, and compiling citizen science moth counts into a report, I decided that pest management was the way forward! As well as singing the praises of biological control, I am especially interested in social insects, months, vectors of human disease and, of course, aphids. It’s quite a mixed bag but I’m looking forward to including some of them in this blog!

We’re aspiring to bring you some blog content that’s as diverse and intriguing as the world of our favourite arthropods. If we can get even remotely near, we’ll have done a pretty good job.

Shropshire Entomology Day – 04/02/2018

Yesterday, me (@EntoAqib) and three fellow entomologists (@pseudoliam, @ento_the_wild and @Apis_linzi) began our journey to the Shropshire Entomology Day at the Field Studies Council centre at Preston Montford, bright and early *shudders*. Upon arrival we were greeted with tea and biscuits, alas, we felt alive once more. After signing in and a warm welcome from Sue Townsend (the FSC chair) we saddled up and waited patiently for the talks to begin.

Starting off was Peter Boardman, a dipterist with a particular fondness for craneflies. He gave us an overview of his past year working for Natural England. He began with tales of traversing the country, sampling at stunning SSSI’s (Sites of Special Scientific Interest); accompanied with pictures of beautiful critters. However, it’s not always sunny days spent sweep netting, there’s also an immense amount of post-fieldwork time and effort that goes into sorting, identifying and then recording specimens!

Next up, was Mike Shurmer, a micromoth super-fan and recorder. Turns out micromoths aren’t just boring brown things, they come in a bunch of different colours and patterns. They are the most diverse of UK Lepidoptera, trumping the substantially more popular butterflies and macro-moths, highlighting their importance and need for attention. Some notable records were mentioned, one of which was Crambus ulliginosellus:

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Crambus ulliginosellus © Jens Christian Schou

 

,this funky looking moth, with an equally funky name, was recorded in Shropshire recently for the first time in 50 years! The presentation ended with a challenge, so I’m going to re-present you guys with the same challenge:

Look out for these two micromoths:-

Twenty-plume moth

  • Keep a look out indoors, in wood stores, garden sheds and in garages.

Twenty-plume moth ©RodBaker

Ectodemia septembrella (slightly trickier)

  • Has leaf mining larvae (the larvae feed within the leaves).
  • Look out for feeding signs on Hypericum spp., commonly known as St. Johns Wort.

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    Feeding signs of the leaf mining larvae of Ectodemia septembrella ©BarryDickerson

If you do find them (or any other micromoth) remember to submit a record on iRecord!

Third on the agenda was a short presentation by Keiron Brown about BioLinks, a project being ran by the FSC which aims to train individuals of varying expertise in the identification and recording of several invertebrate groups, including relatively overlooked ones.

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Focus species groups of the BioLinks project ©HeatherCampbell

Following suit was a talk by Godfrey Blunt on the problems associated with mapping invertebrates. He began by highlighting the problems with current record mapping. Firstly, just because an organism was once there it doesn’t mean it’s still there now. Current mapping uses the botanists approach, but unlike plants, inverts can move. So, if something was found in a spot away from it’s range it doesn’t mean it’s expanding its natural range, it’s very likely that it’s just a chance recording. Therefore, it is important to note that record maps depict static resident population not mobile ones. He also stated that it shouldn’t just be about simply putting a blob on a map, we should be selective in the data we input (especially with old records), as too many inputs may make a map difficult to interpret. The other side of this problem coin is that not having enough records, which is just as bad. He offered an adequate manner (he stressed that this isn’t a solution) of addressing this problem by adopting the mapping approach used by ornithologists; using different sizes of dots and different shapes depending on the record. This provides a visual source of information which is clearer and substantially easier to interpret. Richard Burkmar gave a demonstration on how to use nifty QGIS to produce a base map with the necessary information and then overlaid the records onto it, followed by a resounding “ooooo” from the audience at the pretty result.

Lawrence Bee followed up with a presentation on what went into the making of the British Spiders Field Guide which he co-authored. It’s a handy dandy book jam-packed with lots of info and tons of gorgeous photographs of spiders. I just couldn’t resist grabbing myself a copy!

 

Lunch break!

With our stomachs full, we were ready for another round of talks. It was time for a talk which I was really looking forward to- rearing bushcrickets in captivity! Jon Delf talked through several aspects of rearing: starting a culture, suitable housing, feeding requirements, mating and how to treat their eggs. Everything you need to know to rear bushcrickets in the comfort of your own home.

Next up was fellow entomologist and @EntoMasters student, Liam Andrews. His talk was titled: “Pseudoscorpions of Shropshire”. He started off by informing the crowd about this understudied group with an overview. There’s only 27 species in the UK, but about 3500 worldwide (probably substantially more). He then went on to talk about their physiology and behaviour. Pseudoscorpions display phoretic behaviour- they hitch a ride on other organisms such as flies and beetles to disperse. Their physiology is pretty awesome, these little predators are armed with venomous pedipalps (but some don’t have any venom) and chelicerae which they use to subdue their prey. The chelicerae are also tipped with silk producing structures called the galea. The audience was also informed on how to sample for them. A Tullgren funnel can be used, however these aren’t readily accessible, but you can make your own (pic below)! Sieving compost heaps and leaf litter may also expose these elusive critters, as well as scouring under rocks and logs. The informative presentation came to a close with a run through all the species recorded within Shropshire.

 

Viv Marsh then delivered a talk on siting and managing artificial bee hotels, with a focus on Osmia bicornis, a stingless bee species which is an effective pollinator. The last presentation of the day was by dipterist Nigel Jones, on the insects which he found sweep netting a single ash tree in his back garden. His finds were very interesting to say the least, including a potentially new species to science! It’s incredible how a single tree can boast such diversity.

Aaaaand that’s a wrap! I’d like to thank the organisers and the speakers for such a fantastic day! Hopefully I can make it next year for another day full of ento-goodness.

Follow these folks on twitter:

FSC Centre Preston Montford: @PrestonMontford

FSC Preston Montford chair: @SueTownsend3

Peter Boardman: @pebo22 who runs the cranefly recording scheme @CRStipula

Keiron Brown: @KeironDBrown and the official BioLinks twitter account @FSCBioLinks

Mike Shurmer: @mike_shurmer

Liam Andrews: @pseudoliam who also runs @PseudoscorpUK

Lawrence Bee: @LawrenceBee

Richard Burkmar: @burkmarr

 

By Aqib Ali  (Twitter:@EntoAqib, Email: Aqib1996@hotmail.co.uk, Linkedin: Aqib Ali)

MSc Entomology Twitter: @EntoMasters

How Insects Survive in Extreme Cold Winters

Insects survive in many different environmental conditions, across the world. But, when winter hits temperatures can be extreme in places, reaching  -60℃, and colder! So how do insects survive this extreme fluctuation in temperature? Some insects migrate to avoid these temperatures, but some species stay put, and have physiological adaptations to survive the winter months. Thousands of species spanning several orders, including Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Mecoptera, use two techniques to survive: freeze tolerance and freeze avoidance, which have evolved independently for many species (Dennis, et al, 2015; Duman, et al, 2004; Li, 2016).

1) Freeze Tolerance:

As temperatures start falling in autumn, insects begin to synthesise 3 components key to their winter survival, these are: antifreeze proteins (AFPs), polyols and ice-nucleating agents (INA proteins).

Freeze tolerant species survive by encouraging ice formation in extracellular spaces, using INA proteins. Through osmosis, water is drawn through the cell membrane creating an equilibrium, through these two methods ice is prevented from forming within the insect’s’ cells, which can lead to severe damage and could become lethal (Bale, 2002).

However, the insect is still susceptible to injury from the ice, this is where the polyols come in. These are used to prevent mechanical damage to the insect and have various uses to do this, such as reducing the fluctuation of water across the cell membrane (Bale, 2002).

The insect has one final hurdle to overcome to ensure its survival over winter. As the winter months draw to an end the temperature begins to rise, and water may attach to the ice crystals, within the extracellular spaces, and cause secondary recrystallisation. This is where it gets complicated. Using AFPs, insects can prevent the growth of ice crystals as they preferentially grow from surfaces with a small radius.  AFPs prevent this by adsorbing onto these low radius surfaces of the ice crystal meaning that that they do not grow, unless the temperature reaches the colligative melting point – the Kelvin effect. Essentially the ice crystal will not grow unless the temperature reaches the hysteretic freezing point. Due to the AFPs the water becomes supercooled, and the freezing point is much lower than usual, termed the hysteretic freezing point (Duman, et al, 2004; Zachariassen and Kristiansen, 2000).

2) Freeze Avoidance:

Freeze avoidance is a completely different strategy, using the same materials. Freeze avoidance works by keeping the insects bodily fluids liquid, throughout the entire winter, as opposed to letting the extracellular spaces freeze (Dennis, et al, 2015).

First things first, the insect has its last meal and finds a nice spot to overwinter. Then it begins the process of removing any ice nucleating substances from its body: it’s water content becomes reduced whilst its fat content increases and the digestive system is emptied (Bale, 2002). The insect then synthesises AFPs and polyols which results in the insect having a very low supercooling capacity and thus preventing any bodily fluids from being able to freeze, as long as the temperature remains above their supercooling point (Overgaard and MacMillan, 2017).

To summarise some insects have complex systems allowing them to survive the extreme cold, and it’s pretty cool!

By Linzi Thompson (Email: thompsonlinzi@gmail.com, Twitter: @Apis_linzi )

Harper Adams MSc Entomology Twitter: @EntoMasters

 

References:

Bale, JS. 2002. Insects and Low Temperatures: from Molecular Biology to Distributions and Abundance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 357, pp.849-862.

Dennis, AB, Dunning, LT, Sinclair, BJ, and Buckley, TR. 2015. Parallel molecular routes to cold adaptation in eight genera of New Zealand stick insects. Scientific Reports. Nature. 5

Duman, JG, Bennett, V, Sformo, T, Hochstrasser, R, and Barnes, BM. 2004. Antifreeze Proteins in Alaskan Insects and Spiders. Journal of Insect Physiology. 50, pp.259-266.

Li, NG. 2016. Strong Tolerance to Freezing is a Major Survival Strategy in Insects Inhabiting Central Yakutia (Sakha Republic, Russia), the Coldest Region on Earth. Cryobiology. 73, pp.221-225.

Overgaard, J, and MacMillan, HA. 2017. The Integrative Physiology of Insect Chill Tolerance. Annual Review of Physiology. 79, pp.187-208.

Zachariassen KE, and Kristiansen, E. 2000. Ice nucleation and Antinucleation in Nature. Cryobiology. 41, pp.257-279.